The clay's water content must be balanced; green clay courts generally require the courts to be sloped to allow water run-off. Clay courts are more common in Europe and Latin America than in North America, and tend to heavily favour baseline players. Grass courts are the fastest type of courts in common use. Points are usually very quick where fast, low bounces keep rallies short, and the serve plays a more important role than on other surfaces. Grass courts tend to favour serve-and-volley tennis players.
Grass courts were once among the most common tennis surfaces, but are now rare due to high maintenance costs as they must be watered and mown often, and take a longer time to dry after rain than hard courts. Historically for the Grand Slams grass courts have been used at Wimbledon since , the US Open from to , and the Australian Open from to Hard courts are made of uniform rigid material, often covered with an acrylic surface layer  to offer greater consistency of bounce than other outdoor surfaces.
The quantity of sand added to the paint can greatly affect the rate at which the ball slows down. A short piled form of artificial turf infilled with sand is used for some outdoor courts, particularly in Asia. Carpet is generally a fast surface, faster than hardcourt, with low bounce. Pro Indoor and Kremlin Cup. Since , their use has been discontinued on the top tier of the ATP.
Some tennis courts are indoors, which allows to play regardless of weather conditions and is more comfortable for spectators. Different court surfaces have been used indoors. Hard courts are most common indoors, as they are the easiest to install and maintain.
If the installation is permanent, they are constructed on an asphalt or concrete base, as with outdoor courts. Temporary indoor hard courts are typically constructed using wooden floor panels topped with acrylic which are installed over the venue's standard floor. This is the system used for modern indoor professional events such as the ATP Finals.
John Bromwich Adrian Quist. Frank Sedgman Ken McGregor. Roy Emerson Neale Fraser. John McEnroe Peter Fleming. Venus Williams Serena Williams. Doris Hart Shirley Fry Irvin. Suzanne Lenglen Elizabeth Ryan. Tony Roche. Pam Shriver. Thelma Coyne Long. James Dwight. Open d'Australie. Reginald Frank Doherty. Mark Woodforde. Margaret Smith Court Ken Fletcher. Doris Hart Frank Sedgman. Billie Jean King Owen Davidson. Doris Hart Vic Seixas. Owen Davidson. Ken Fletcher. Leander Paes.
Vic Seixas. Ivan Lendl. Andre Agassi. Justine Henin. Evonne Goolagong. Venus Williams. Hommes Majeur. Some fictional portrayals of royal bastards were less negative, such the character of Philip the Bastard also known as of Cognac in Shakespeare's King John. Unlike medieval royalty, the Romans were more concerned with continuity of family name than with bloodline. For example, Emperor Claudius initially accepted a girl as his daughter, but later rejected her and had her exposed.
There are no recorded examples of aristocrats in classical times accusing other aristocrats of being illegitimate, as was common among in later periods.
Caesarion was possibly the illegitimate son of Julius Caesar by Cleopatra , which would also make him Caesar's only known child besides Julia. In the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy then Kingdom, descendants of kings were called aethelings , whether legitimate or not. When a kingship became vacant, a Witan would meet to name an aetheling as king.
Papal legates visited the great hall of Offa of Mercia in and decreed that an English king "must not be begotten in adultery or incest" and that "he who was not born of a legitimate marriage" could not succeed to the throne. Athelstan , his acknowledged illegitimate son, succeeded as king in William the Conqueror was an acknowledged illegitimate son of a line of three Norman dukes noted for many truces; he was of Scandinavian, Breton, Anglo-Saxon and North French royal and noble descent.
Gervase de Blois written variously , often in latest books Gervais of Blois , a bastard of Stephen I , was Abbot of Westminster from to c. William's mother was Ida de Tosny , while Geoffrey's may have been called Ykenai. Richard the Lionheart had at least one illegitimate child: Philip of Cognac , who died young possibly in battle.
John had at least five children with mistresses during his first marriage to Isabelle of Gloucester , and two of which are known to have been noblewomen. Perkin Warbeck closely resembled Edward IV and claimed to be his son Richard of Shrewsbury ; it has been theorised that Perkin was one of Edward's illegitimate children. Richard III justified his accession to the throne by claiming that the children of Edward IV were the product of an invalid marriage.
As he had many mistresses , historians put forward six other likely instances including the mercenary Thomas Stukley , the poet Richard Edwardes and two of Mary Boleyn 's children. One of the organizers of the much-touted but in reality fought more on paper than on the battlefield Arab revolt against the Turks during World War I, Lawrence later became embittered with Britain's imperial policy and spent the last few years of his life sulking and tinkering with motorcycles he died in a motorcycle accident.
Though he largely tried to keep a low profile, his much-exaggerated accomplishments led to him being dubbed "Lawrence of Arabia. In fact, she was there to do more than just wave at crowds and manage the mansion. And though she's best known to many from the musical and movie that bear her name, you really shouldn't feel obligated to cry for her. While the flick plays up the glamour and romance of her career, it largely ignores her corruption, oppression of political rivals, cozying up to Nazi war criminals, and other questionable doings.
Though the main book series and movie franchise are long over, the Wizarding World of Harry Potter remains in the spotlight as one of the most popular properties in pop-culture. The folks at Funko definitely know this, and every year the company releases a new Advent calendar based on the popular series so fans can count down to the holidays with their favorite characters.
Over the course of the holiday season, the Advent calendar allows you to count down the days until Christmas, starting on December 1, by opening one of the tiny, numbered doors on the appropriate day. Each door is filled with a surprise Pocket Pop! Calendars will start shipping on October 15, but if you want a head start, go to Amazon to pre-order yours at a discount.
This article contains affiliate links to products selected by our editors. Mental Floss may receive a commission for purchases made through these links.Du joueur qui a disputé le plus de matchs en une saison à la joueuse la plus jeune à avoir jamais remporté un tournoi officiel en passant par le plus gros serveur, retrouvez en images les 25 records les plus marquants de l’histoire du tennis, qu’ils soient iconiques, anecdotiques ou, .